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STUDY OF POPULATION DENSITY AND MORPHOMETRICS BERUNGAN (T. Telescopium) AT MANGROVE AREA ON WATER RUNOFF LEACHATE OF THE DOMESTIC WASTE DUMPSITE AND PROCESSING TELAGA PUNGGUR BATAM CITY – INDONESIA

Yarsi Efendi1, Ramses2

1Lecturer in Biology Education Program, University of Kepulauan Riau, Batam – Indonesia

yarsie_007@yahoo.com

2Lecturer in Biology Education Program, University of Kepulauan Riau, Batam – Indonesia

ramses.firdaus@gmail.com

 

 

Abstract

 The Research have done in mangrove area Telaga Punggur N :1 ° 2’39.33, E ;104 ° 7’8.83, had located near from the domestic waste dumpsite and processing (TPA) of Batam City and Sungai Bongkok Tanjung Piayu distric of  Batam City, Indonesia,  N; 1° 1’48.71, E; 104° 5’4.86 that used as comparison habitat. This research started from September to November 2015, have purpose to compare the population density and the difference of morphometrics of T. telescopium at two different observation sites. The sampling point determined by method of random sampling. The sample has taken by plot measurement 10×10 m and the sub plot measurement 1×1 m placed in 5 pieces plot measurement 10×10 m.The research show that there are differences significant in population density of  T. telescopium between the rich nutrition that show on station 1 Telaga Punggur to the low nutrition in the station 2 Sungai Bongkok. Nutrition organic material that contained in the leachate originating from runoff domestic waste dumpsite and processed allegedly giving effect to the high population of T. Telescopium. Differences heavy metal content was significantly correlated with morphometric (length and diameter) of T. Telescopium. This research shows the higher heavy metal content in Telaga Punggur station than into the Sungai Bongkok station, described T. telescopium size or morphometric (diameter and length) are relatively small.

 Keywords: Population density; Morphometrics; Telescopium telescopium, leachate, heavy metal

 

  1. INTRODUCTION

Mangrove ecosystems around in coastal areas of tropical or sub-tropical ecosystems are dynamic and have hight productivity and high economic value. This condition is largely determined by the substrate that is rich in organic matter, thus allowing multiple types of flora and fauna can grow and develop properly. Bengen (2004) state there are a wide variety of organisms that live in the mangrove ecosystem such as fish, mollusks, shrimp, crabs and worms. Mangrove habitat for aquatic biota. Mangrove ecological functions for biota such as the breeding (nursery grounds), areas where foraging (feeding ground) and spawning (spawning ground).

 

Mangrove systems represent complex and highly dynamic environments in which faunal assemblages typically occupy distinct horizontal or vertical zones, and manifest complex temporal patterns in their activities (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Hogarth, 2007; Lopes, 2009). The crucial role of marine invertebrates in the food web, nutrient cycling and overall energy ?ux in Indo-Paci?c mangrove ecosystems has become a standard paradigm in ecological research on these tidal forests (Bouillon et al., 2008; Lopes, 2009).

Hutchings and Saenger (1987) in Susetiono (2005) explained that the mollusks especially of gastropod class is the dominant animal groups in the mangrove forest. Mangroves as a habitat where life, shelter, spawning and food supplies can sustain life mollusks.
Rangan, (2015) reported class  Gastropod  is one of the most members of phyllum Mollusc  that are mostly successful to do the environmental adaptation.  About  55,000  species inhabit marine habitats distributed from coast to deep sea.  Telescopium telescopium  is one of gastropods found around the mangrove ecosytem (Kartawinata  et al, 1979)  and  fish pond area near rivermouth with mud substrate of rich organic matters  (Radjasa,  et al., 2012).  Potamididae  snails, including  T. telescopium,  are native residentsi  of mangrove forest and live in intertidal and prefer muddy area (Heryanto et., 1989 and Heryanto, 2009). The occurrence of T. telescopium  in mangrove  forest has sufficiently ecologically and economically important roles.  Berungan (T. Telescopium) are often found along the coastal area of Batam, which dominated by mangrove, including Telaga Punggur region. Where in this area was built the domestic waste dumpsite and processing (TPA).

Domestic waste dumpsite and processing at Telaga Punggur is the only one dumpsite in Batam City.  In this site all of household waste and urban waste are piled, and processed.  System processing of waste has used controlled landfills. Controlled Landfill system has the potential to cause environmental problems, especially the problem of contamination of leachate if not managed properly.  It can cause odors, lowering the quality of ground water, sea water, and the emergence of various insects and disease vectors that can damage the health of the surrounding communities.

Leachate can be defined as a fluid infiltrating through piles of garbage and has extracted dissolved or suspended material. Most landfill, leachate is formed of liquid entering the area of landfill waste originating from external sources, such as rainwater, groundwater and liquids produced from waste decomposition. (Tchobanoglous, 1993; Hamidi, 2016). The location of the landfill very close to the sea surrounded by stands of mangrove vegetation. If leachate emanating from the landfill is not treated properly it will potentially pollute the environment, endanger human health, water resources and aquatic biota biota that exist around the landfill. Based on examination of the preliminary studies, this habitat obviously has received runoff from the waste water tank leachate. This leachate runoff physically result in changes to water and  substrate in place. These changes include colour that turns into a dark red and spread a pungent odor that is unpleasant.

Based on the above issues then we do the research to assess population density of Berungan (T. telescopium) in the mangrove area that became runoff leachate from waste dumpsite in Telaga Punggur Batam and compare it to the mangrove habitat in Sungai Bongkok which not affected by dumpsite waste leachate runoff.

 

 2. RESEARCH METHODS

The method used in this research is exploration with intra-regional comparisons technique. Where on the two observation station compared their density and individual morphometrics of  T. Telescopium.

 Time and Place Research

Research was conducted on mangrove habitat around the waste dumpsite Telaga Punggur Batam, Kepulauan Riau Province, Indonesia and Sungai Bongkok Tanjung Piayu Batam Kepulauan Riau Province, Indonesia. Research began in September to November, 2015.

stats-riset

Figure1. Maps of  station research.

  • Data Collection

Data abundance of T. Telescopium is taken by placing randomized 4 plots 10m x 10m on each research station (Telaga Punggur and Sungai Bongkok). Then at the plot 10m x 10m, we made  subplot 1m x 1m by using a nylon rope. T. telescopium that collected at the lowest tide. Samples Telescopium telescopiumyang above the substrate and attached to the mangrove roots that are within each sub-plot is taken entirely and put in plastic bags that have been labeled. Furthermore morfometric numbered and measured (length and diameter) for each sample.Then used plot 1m x 1m was made in plot size of 10 x 10 m by using a rope / nylon as many as five sub-plot, which is two sub-plot at the end / corner of each plot and one sub-plot in the center of the plot. Individual census of T. telescopium taken entirely and put in plastic bags that have been labeled. Furthermore we measure morphometric (length and diameter) for each sample.

  • Data Analysis
    • Population Density

The density of these T. telescopium was calculated as individual number per square meter by applying the following formula: D = N/A, where: D = density (ind / m²), N = number of individuals and A = area of the observation plot. Welch (1948) in K.K Sharma et al (2013).

  • Water Quality Analysis

Water quality data were analyzed descriptively to obtain an overview of the environmental conditions in the river waters of the mangrove ecosystem in Telaga Punggur station and Sungai Bongkok station. Data were obtained from each location compared to the degree of the Minister of Environment republic Indonesia No. 51. 2004 about Sea Water Quality Standard.

  • Statistical Data Analysis

Statistical data analysis using Minitab 14.1 for the test: Mann-Whitney, Correlation Analysis, Regression Analysis, further test to examine alleged median mark a continuously distributed population. Apriadi (2005).

   Result and Discussion

    • Chemistry and Physical environmental parameters

Based on research that has been conducted, the average value of physical and chemical environmental factors on 2 observation station, can be seen in Table 1 below.

Table. 1. Water Quality Measurement Results in 2 Observation Station

 

NoParameterStation 2: Sei. BongkokStation1: TPA PunggurStandard Criteria **)
1Temperature (oC)34.632.428- 32
2pH7.817.587- 8.5
3Salinity (ppt)1918s/d 34
4Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)3.30.73> 5
5Suspended solids (mg/l)222020- 80

Remark: **): The quality standard is based on Decree of Minister of Environment RI NO.51, 2004

Sea water quality parameters in the two sites are below of the quality standards set by the Decree of Minister of Environment Republic Indonesia number 51 of 2004 which establishes quality standards TSS in mangrove waters. This means that the above conditions are still within the tolerance range of marine biota.

 

  • Concentration of Heavy Metals in Observation Station

The results of laboratory testing on the concentration of heavy metals at each observation station are presented in Table 2 below.

Table 2. Concentration of Heavy Metals in 2 Observation Station

No.ParameterUnitSei. BongkokTelaga PunggurStandard Criteria **)
1 (Hg) •mg/L<0.0002<0.00020.001
2Chromium (Cr) •mg/L0.027<0.0010.005
3Arsen (As)  •mg/L<0.0002<0.00020.012
4Cadmium (Cd) •mg/L<0.001<0.0010.001
5Lead (Pb) •mg/L0.014<0.0050.008
6Copper (Cu) •mg/L<0.0050.0120.008
7Zinc (Zn) •mg/L<0.0050.0050.05

Remark: **): The quality standard is based on Decree of Minister of Environment RI NO. 51, 2004

 Refers to the standard quality based on The Decree of Minister of Environment Republic Indonesia, No. 51 of 2004, both sites heavy metal concentration is below to the quality standards established. It means is not dangerous for the survival of marine biota’s in the two sites. Rangan (2015) reported environmental physico-chemical factors affecting the density of  T. telescopium. Environmental physico-chemical parameters observed are generally positively correlated each other.  It reflects that increase in one  parameter is followed by the others.

3.3 Comparison of Population Density T. Telescopium between 2 observation stations

The study of population density T. telescopium within two mangrove area can be seen in Table 3 below.

Tabel.3. Comparison of Population Density of T. Telescopium between Telaga Punggur Station and Sungai Bongkok Station

Observation PlotsStation 1

(Telaga Punggur)

Station 2

(Sungai Bongkok)

Plot 19118
Plot 26917
Plot 38515
Plot 45212
Number of Individual29762
Population Density (ind/m²)0.74250.155

There are difference in the number of individuals and a significant density values between station 1 and station 2. At station 1 the number of people higher in the 297 individual with the highest density of 0.7425 ind / m² whereas at station 2 the number of individual low as 62 individual with the highest density of 0.155 ind / m2.

screenshot_1

Figure 2. The Comparison of populations density of T. telescopium on 2 stations

The hight population of T. telescopium that found in Telaga Punggur allegedly caused by a large supply of nutrients derived from leachate, which flows into the mangrove habitat around the landfill of Telaga Punggur. T. telescopium like delicate habitats that contain a variety of organic materials that become a source of food. Screenivasan and Natajaran (1991) in Hamsiah, et al, (2002) describes in generaly food of family potamididae consists of : small organic material, particulate detritus and diatoms that settle to the bottom waters and various types of algae.

Figure 1 shows that there are differences of density between 2 stations. Population desnsity in Sungai Bongkok showed lack number. As explained earlier, this is likely due to the low supply of nutrients when compared to Telaga Punggur station which rich material that supplied by leachate of domestic waste. The low supply of nutrients is also caused by the illegal logging of mangrove tress by communities around the Sungai Bongkok. Logging mangrove trees done illegally to be used as raw material for the manufacture of mangrove charcoal.  Fahmuddin, et al (2004), most of the land fauna (indirectly) dependent on the continuity of supply of organic matter in the form of leaf litter, fruit, or litter timber. Forest conversion tends to lower the litter which also lowers food for land fauna.

3.4. Mann-Whitney Test Comparison Density (ind / m²)

Based on the results of Mann-Whitney test to the population density (ind/m²) of T. telescopium using Minitab 14, shows that the difference in density (ind / m²) between Station 1 and Station 2 (H0) is rejected and accepted (H1. Where the median of the population station 1 is 0.7700 and the median station 2 is 0. 1600, with Pvalue of 0.0304 at the 95% confidence level or with a tolerance level of 5% (? 0.05). Based on data from population density of  T. Telescopium (Table 4) it can be seen that there are differences significant  in the population density between station1 and  station 2.

3.5. Comparison Morphometrics of T. telescopium

Measurement results against average morphometric (length and diameter) of T. telescopium at each station are presented in Table 4 below.

Table 4. Comparison of average morphometric (length and diameter) T. telescopium

PlotStation.1Station.2
MorphometricsMorphometrics
LengthDiameterLengthDiameter
Plot 18.884.523.812.12
Plot 28.814.783.92.14
Plot 38.894.754.782.64
Plot 49.24.96.183.29
Average8.944.734.662.54

Based on Table. 4 can be seen the difference significant in length and diameter morphometric for T. telescopium at each observation station. Average length T. Telescopium ranged between 4.66 – 8.94 cm, while the average diameter of T. telescopium ranged from 2:54 – 4.73 cm. Average length of T. telescopium highest it found in Sungai Bongkok, with an average length of 8.94 cm. While the average length of T. telescopium in Telaga Pungur lowest for the landfill, with an average length of 4.66cm. Average diameter T. telescopium  at each station ranged from 2:54 – 4.73 cm. The highest average diameter of T. telescopium found in Sungai Bongkok  4.73 cm and 2,54 cm that found in Telaga Punggur.

The morphometrics difference of T. telescopium found in 2 observations station allegedly due to differences in heavy metal content of chromium (Cr) accumulated. The content of heavy metals is thought to inhibit the growth of T. telescopium, resulting morphometric differences between the two stations. Eisler, (2000) described thre are two factors known to modify accumulate of chromium in Mollusks are heavy and medium salinity. The concentration of chromium in the shells are reported to decrease with increasing weight, and increasing salinity. (Olson and Harrel, 1973; Eisler, 2000) Based on the opinion Eisler, (2000) and Olson, Harrel (1973), it can be concluded that the larger the size, weight and morphometrics T. telescopium which is one of the species of the phylum Mollusk, then the accumulation chromium will decrease. Like wise with increasing salinity, proven measure physical parameters of environmental chemicals (Table 1) there is a difference in salinity at each observation station.

Nasreen, K. et. al (2014) shows there are relationships between heavy metals concentrations to molluscan size.  The gastropod T. carinifera ranged in size length from 50 to 70 mm (four size groups) while size of the bivalve V. aureus ranged from 25 to 55 mm (six size groups). Positive correlations were found between the size of T. carinifera and Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn (P < 0.05). The  largest individuals contained the highest levels of metals.  On the other hand, all studied metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb  and Zn) had positive correlations related to size in V. aureus (P < 0.01). The smaller the bivalve (size class 25 – 30 mm), the higher the heavy metal concentration.

  1. CONCLUSION
  1. There are differences significant in population density of T. telescopium between the area which rich in organic matter contained in the leachate runoff that show on station 1 Telaga Punggur to the low nutrition area in the station 2 Sungai Bongkok.
  2. Nutrition organic material that contained in the leachate originating from runoff the domestic waste dumpsite and processing at Telaga Punggur allegedly giving effect to the high population of T. Telescopium.
  3. Differences heavy metal contained was significantly correlated with morphometric (length and diameter) of T. Telescopium. This research shows the higher heavy metal content in Telaga Punggur station than into the Sungai Bongkok station, described T. telescopium size or morphometric (diameter and length) are relatively small.

 

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