STUDY OF POPULATION DENSITY AND MORPHOMETRICS BERUNGAN (T. Telescopium) AT MANGROVE AREA ON WATER RUNOFF LEACHATE OF THE DOMESTIC WASTE DUMPSITE AND PROCESSING TELAGA PUNGGUR BATAM CITY – INDONESIA
Yarsi Efendi1, Ramses2
1Lecturer in Biology Education Program, University of Kepulauan Riau, Batam – Indonesia
2Lecturer in Biology Education Program, University of Kepulauan Riau, Batam – Indonesia
The Research have done in mangrove area Telaga Punggur N :1 ° 2’39.33, E ;104 ° 7’8.83, had located near from the domestic waste dumpsite and processing (TPA) of Batam City and Sungai Bongkok Tanjung Piayu distric of Batam City, Indonesia, N; 1° 1’48.71, E; 104° 5’4.86 that used as comparison habitat. This research started from September to November 2015, have purpose to compare the population density and the difference of morphometrics of T. telescopium at two different observation sites. The sampling point determined by method of random sampling. The sample has taken by plot measurement 10×10 m and the sub plot measurement 1×1 m placed in 5 pieces plot measurement 10×10 m.The research show that there are differences significant in population density of T. telescopium between the rich nutrition that show on station 1 Telaga Punggur to the low nutrition in the station 2 Sungai Bongkok. Nutrition organic material that contained in the leachate originating from runoff domestic waste dumpsite and processed allegedly giving effect to the high population of T. Telescopium. Differences heavy metal content was significantly correlated with morphometric (length and diameter) of T. Telescopium. This research shows the higher heavy metal content in Telaga Punggur station than into the Sungai Bongkok station, described T. telescopium size or morphometric (diameter and length) are relatively small.
Keywords: Population density; Morphometrics; Telescopium telescopium, leachate, heavy metal
Mangrove ecosystems around in coastal areas of tropical or sub-tropical ecosystems are dynamic and have hight productivity and high economic value. This condition is largely determined by the substrate that is rich in organic matter, thus allowing multiple types of flora and fauna can grow and develop properly. Bengen (2004) state there are a wide variety of organisms that live in the mangrove ecosystem such as fish, mollusks, shrimp, crabs and worms. Mangrove habitat for aquatic biota. Mangrove ecological functions for biota such as the breeding (nursery grounds), areas where foraging (feeding ground) and spawning (spawning ground).
Mangrove systems represent complex and highly dynamic environments in which faunal assemblages typically occupy distinct horizontal or vertical zones, and manifest complex temporal patterns in their activities (Robertson and Alongi, 1992; Hogarth, 2007; Lopes, 2009). The crucial role of marine invertebrates in the food web, nutrient cycling and overall energy ?ux in Indo-Paci?c mangrove ecosystems has become a standard paradigm in ecological research on these tidal forests (Bouillon et al., 2008; Lopes, 2009).
Hutchings and Saenger (1987) in Susetiono (2005) explained that the mollusks especially of gastropod class is the dominant animal groups in the mangrove forest. Mangroves as a habitat where life, shelter, spawning and food supplies can sustain life mollusks.
Rangan, (2015) reported class Gastropod is one of the most members of phyllum Mollusc that are mostly successful to do the environmental adaptation. About 55,000 species inhabit marine habitats distributed from coast to deep sea. Telescopium telescopium is one of gastropods found around the mangrove ecosytem (Kartawinata et al, 1979) and fish pond area near rivermouth with mud substrate of rich organic matters (Radjasa, et al., 2012). Potamididae snails, including T. telescopium, are native residentsi of mangrove forest and live in intertidal and prefer muddy area (Heryanto et., 1989 and Heryanto, 2009). The occurrence of T. telescopium in mangrove forest has sufficiently ecologically and economically important roles. Berungan (T. Telescopium) are often found along the coastal area of Batam, which dominated by mangrove, including Telaga Punggur region. Where in this area was built the domestic waste dumpsite and processing (TPA).
Domestic waste dumpsite and processing at Telaga Punggur is the only one dumpsite in Batam City. In this site all of household waste and urban waste are piled, and processed. System processing of waste has used controlled landfills. Controlled Landfill system has the potential to cause environmental problems, especially the problem of contamination of leachate if not managed properly. It can cause odors, lowering the quality of ground water, sea water, and the emergence of various insects and disease vectors that can damage the health of the surrounding communities.
Leachate can be defined as a fluid infiltrating through piles of garbage and has extracted dissolved or suspended material. Most landfill, leachate is formed of liquid entering the area of landfill waste originating from external sources, such as rainwater, groundwater and liquids produced from waste decomposition. (Tchobanoglous, 1993; Hamidi, 2016). The location of the landfill very close to the sea surrounded by stands of mangrove vegetation. If leachate emanating from the landfill is not treated properly it will potentially pollute the environment, endanger human health, water resources and aquatic biota biota that exist around the landfill. Based on examination of the preliminary studies, this habitat obviously has received runoff from the waste water tank leachate. This leachate runoff physically result in changes to water and substrate in place. These changes include colour that turns into a dark red and spread a pungent odor that is unpleasant.
Based on the above issues then we do the research to assess population density of Berungan (T. telescopium) in the mangrove area that became runoff leachate from waste dumpsite in Telaga Punggur Batam and compare it to the mangrove habitat in Sungai Bongkok which not affected by dumpsite waste leachate runoff.
2. RESEARCH METHODS
The method used in this research is exploration with intra-regional comparisons technique. Where on the two observation station compared their density and individual morphometrics of T. Telescopium.
Time and Place Research
Research was conducted on mangrove habitat around the waste dumpsite Telaga Punggur Batam, Kepulauan Riau Province, Indonesia and Sungai Bongkok Tanjung Piayu Batam Kepulauan Riau Province, Indonesia. Research began in September to November, 2015.
Figure1. Maps of station research.
- Data Collection
Data abundance of T. Telescopium is taken by placing randomized 4 plots 10m x 10m on each research station (Telaga Punggur and Sungai Bongkok). Then at the plot 10m x 10m, we made subplot 1m x 1m by using a nylon rope. T. telescopium that collected at the lowest tide. Samples Telescopium telescopiumyang above the substrate and attached to the mangrove roots that are within each sub-plot is taken entirely and put in plastic bags that have been labeled. Furthermore morfometric numbered and measured (length and diameter) for each sample.Then used plot 1m x 1m was made in plot size of 10 x 10 m by using a rope / nylon as many as five sub-plot, which is two sub-plot at the end / corner of each plot and one sub-plot in the center of the plot. Individual census of T. telescopium taken entirely and put in plastic bags that have been labeled. Furthermore we measure morphometric (length and diameter) for each sample.
- Data Analysis
- Population Density
The density of these T. telescopium was calculated as individual number per square meter by applying the following formula: D = N/A, where: D = density (ind / m²), N = number of individuals and A = area of the observation plot. Welch (1948) in K.K Sharma et al (2013).
- Water Quality Analysis
Water quality data were analyzed descriptively to obtain an overview of the environmental conditions in the river waters of the mangrove ecosystem in Telaga Punggur station and Sungai Bongkok station. Data were obtained from each location compared to the degree of the Minister of Environment republic Indonesia No. 51. 2004 about Sea Water Quality Standard.
- Statistical Data Analysis
Statistical data analysis using Minitab 14.1 for the test: Mann-Whitney, Correlation Analysis, Regression Analysis, further test to examine alleged median mark a continuously distributed population. Apriadi (2005).
Result and Discussion
- Chemistry and Physical environmental parameters
Based on research that has been conducted, the average value of physical and chemical environmental factors on 2 observation station, can be seen in Table 1 below.
Table. 1. Water Quality Measurement Results in 2 Observation Station
|No||Parameter||Station 2: Sei. Bongkok||Station1: TPA Punggur||Standard Criteria **)|
|1||Temperature (oC)||34.6||32.4||28- 32|
|3||Salinity (ppt)||19||18||s/d 34|
|4||Dissolved oxygen (mg/l)||3.3||0.73||> 5|
|5||Suspended solids (mg/l)||22||20||20- 80|
Remark: **): The quality standard is based on Decree of Minister of Environment RI NO.51, 2004
Sea water quality parameters in the two sites are below of the quality standards set by the Decree of Minister of Environment Republic Indonesia number 51 of 2004 which establishes quality standards TSS in mangrove waters. This means that the above conditions are still within the tolerance range of marine biota.
- Concentration of Heavy Metals in Observation Station
The results of laboratory testing on the concentration of heavy metals at each observation station are presented in Table 2 below.
Table 2. Concentration of Heavy Metals in 2 Observation Station
|No.||Parameter||Unit||Sei. Bongkok||Telaga Punggur||Standard Criteria **)|
|2||Chromium (Cr) •||mg/L||0.027||<0.001||0.005|
|3||Arsen (As) •||mg/L||<0.0002||<0.0002||0.012|
|4||Cadmium (Cd) •||mg/L||<0.001||<0.001||0.001|
|5||Lead (Pb) •||mg/L||0.014||<0.005||0.008|
|6||Copper (Cu) •||mg/L||<0.005||0.012||0.008|
|7||Zinc (Zn) •||mg/L||<0.005||0.005||0.05|
Remark: **): The quality standard is based on Decree of Minister of Environment RI NO. 51, 2004
Refers to the standard quality based on The Decree of Minister of Environment Republic Indonesia, No. 51 of 2004, both sites heavy metal concentration is below to the quality standards established. It means is not dangerous for the survival of marine biota’s in the two sites. Rangan (2015) reported environmental physico-chemical factors affecting the density of T. telescopium. Environmental physico-chemical parameters observed are generally positively correlated each other. It reflects that increase in one parameter is followed by the others.
3.3 Comparison of Population Density T. Telescopium between 2 observation stations
The study of population density T. telescopium within two mangrove area can be seen in Table 3 below.
Tabel.3. Comparison of Population Density of T. Telescopium between Telaga Punggur Station and Sungai Bongkok Station
|Observation Plots||Station 1|
|Number of Individual||297||62|
|Population Density (ind/m²)||0.7425||0.155|
There are difference in the number of individuals and a significant density values between station 1 and station 2. At station 1 the number of people higher in the 297 individual with the highest density of 0.7425 ind / m² whereas at station 2 the number of individual low as 62 individual with the highest density of 0.155 ind / m2.
Figure 2. The Comparison of populations density of T. telescopium on 2 stations
The hight population of T. telescopium that found in Telaga Punggur allegedly caused by a large supply of nutrients derived from leachate, which flows into the mangrove habitat around the landfill of Telaga Punggur. T. telescopium like delicate habitats that contain a variety of organic materials that become a source of food. Screenivasan and Natajaran (1991) in Hamsiah, et al, (2002) describes in generaly food of family potamididae consists of : small organic material, particulate detritus and diatoms that settle to the bottom waters and various types of algae.
Figure 1 shows that there are differences of density between 2 stations. Population desnsity in Sungai Bongkok showed lack number. As explained earlier, this is likely due to the low supply of nutrients when compared to Telaga Punggur station which rich material that supplied by leachate of domestic waste. The low supply of nutrients is also caused by the illegal logging of mangrove tress by communities around the Sungai Bongkok. Logging mangrove trees done illegally to be used as raw material for the manufacture of mangrove charcoal. Fahmuddin, et al (2004), most of the land fauna (indirectly) dependent on the continuity of supply of organic matter in the form of leaf litter, fruit, or litter timber. Forest conversion tends to lower the litter which also lowers food for land fauna.
3.4. Mann-Whitney Test Comparison Density (ind / m²)
Based on the results of Mann-Whitney test to the population density (ind/m²) of T. telescopium using Minitab 14, shows that the difference in density (ind / m²) between Station 1 and Station 2 (H0) is rejected and accepted (H1. Where the median of the population station 1 is 0.7700 and the median station 2 is 0. 1600, with Pvalue of 0.0304 at the 95% confidence level or with a tolerance level of 5% (? 0.05). Based on data from population density of T. Telescopium (Table 4) it can be seen that there are differences significant in the population density between station1 and station 2.
3.5. Comparison Morphometrics of T. telescopium
Measurement results against average morphometric (length and diameter) of T. telescopium at each station are presented in Table 4 below.
Table 4. Comparison of average morphometric (length and diameter) T. telescopium
Based on Table. 4 can be seen the difference significant in length and diameter morphometric for T. telescopium at each observation station. Average length T. Telescopium ranged between 4.66 – 8.94 cm, while the average diameter of T. telescopium ranged from 2:54 – 4.73 cm. Average length of T. telescopium highest it found in Sungai Bongkok, with an average length of 8.94 cm. While the average length of T. telescopium in Telaga Pungur lowest for the landfill, with an average length of 4.66cm. Average diameter T. telescopium at each station ranged from 2:54 – 4.73 cm. The highest average diameter of T. telescopium found in Sungai Bongkok 4.73 cm and 2,54 cm that found in Telaga Punggur.
The morphometrics difference of T. telescopium found in 2 observations station allegedly due to differences in heavy metal content of chromium (Cr) accumulated. The content of heavy metals is thought to inhibit the growth of T. telescopium, resulting morphometric differences between the two stations. Eisler, (2000) described thre are two factors known to modify accumulate of chromium in Mollusks are heavy and medium salinity. The concentration of chromium in the shells are reported to decrease with increasing weight, and increasing salinity. (Olson and Harrel, 1973; Eisler, 2000) Based on the opinion Eisler, (2000) and Olson, Harrel (1973), it can be concluded that the larger the size, weight and morphometrics T. telescopium which is one of the species of the phylum Mollusk, then the accumulation chromium will decrease. Like wise with increasing salinity, proven measure physical parameters of environmental chemicals (Table 1) there is a difference in salinity at each observation station.
Nasreen, K. et. al (2014) shows there are relationships between heavy metals concentrations to molluscan size. The gastropod T. carinifera ranged in size length from 50 to 70 mm (four size groups) while size of the bivalve V. aureus ranged from 25 to 55 mm (six size groups). Positive correlations were found between the size of T. carinifera and Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn (P < 0.05). The largest individuals contained the highest levels of metals. On the other hand, all studied metals (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) had positive correlations related to size in V. aureus (P < 0.01). The smaller the bivalve (size class 25 – 30 mm), the higher the heavy metal concentration.
- There are differences significant in population density of T. telescopium between the area which rich in organic matter contained in the leachate runoff that show on station 1 Telaga Punggur to the low nutrition area in the station 2 Sungai Bongkok.
- Nutrition organic material that contained in the leachate originating from runoff the domestic waste dumpsite and processing at Telaga Punggur allegedly giving effect to the high population of T. Telescopium.
- Differences heavy metal contained was significantly correlated with morphometric (length and diameter) of T. Telescopium. This research shows the higher heavy metal content in Telaga Punggur station than into the Sungai Bongkok station, described T. telescopium size or morphometric (diameter and length) are relatively small.
Apriadi, D.. 2005. Kandungan Logam Berat Hg, Pb, dan Cr Pada Air, Sedimen, dan Kerang Hijau (Perna Viridis L) di Perairan Kamal Muara, Teluk Jakarta. [Skripsi]. Bogor: Departemen Manajemen Sumberdaya Perairan; Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Bengen, D.G. 2004. Technical Guidelines for Mangrove Ecosystem Management. Center for Coastal and Ocean Studies. IPB. Bogor Indonesia.
Eisler, R.. 2000. Handbook of Chemical Risk Assessment. First CRC Press LLC Printing. United States of America.
Fahmuddin, A, Meine van Noordwijk and Subekti Rahayu (2004) Dampak Hidrologis Hutan, Agroforestri, dan Pertanian Lahan Kering sebagai Dasar Pemberian Imbalan kepada Penghasil Jasa Lingkungan di Prosiding Lokakarya di Padang/Singkarak, Sumatera Barat, Indonesia 25-28 Pebruari. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).
Hamidi, A.A, Salem, A.Amre, Control and Treatment of Landfill Leachate for Sanitary Waste Disposal. 2016. Unibversity Sains Malaysia. A Volume in The Advances in Environmental Engineering and Green Technologies (AEEGT) Book Series.
Hamsiah.. 2000. Peranan Keong Bakau (Telescopium telescopium L.) Sebagai Biofilter Dalam Pengelolaan Limbah Budidaya Tambak Udang Intensif.[Tesis]. Bogor: Program Studi Ilmu Perairan; Program Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Hamsiah., Djokosetiyanto, D., Adiwilaga, E.M., Nirmala, K. 2002. Peranan Keong Bakau Telescopium telescopium L., Sebagai Biofilter Dalam Pengelolaan Limbah Budidaya Tambak Udang Intensif. Jurnal Akultur Indonesia, Volume 1, Nomor 2, 2002: 57-63.
- K. Sharma, Komal Bangotra* and Minakshi Saini (2013). Diversity and distribution of Mollusca in relation to the physico-chemical profile of Gho-Manhasan stream, Jammu (J & K). International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation Vol. 5(4), pp. 240-249.
Lopes Gil Penha, Steven Bouillon, Perrine Mangion, Adriano Macia, Jose ´ Paula (2009), Population structure, density and food sources of Terebralia palustris (Potamididae: Gastropoda) in a low intertidal Avicennia marina mangrove stand (Inhaca Island, Mozambique) Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science www.elsevier.com/locate/ecss 84 (2009) 318–325
Nesreen K. Ibrahim, Mohamed A. Abu El-Regal (2014), Heavy Metals Accumulation in Marine Edible Molluscs, Timsah Lake Suez Canal, Egypt, International Applied Geological Congress, Department of Geology, Islamic Azad University – Mashad Branch, Iran, 26-28 April 2010 The Effects of Heavy Metals on Aquatic Animals
Nybakken, J. W.. 1992. Biologi Laut. Suatu Pendekatan Ekologis. Alih Bahasa Oleh H. M. Eidman. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia.
Jety Kornela Rangan, Muhammad Mahmudi, Marsoedi, Diana Arfiati. 2015. Density and habitat preference of Telescopium telescopium (Gastropoda: Potamididae ) population in mangrove forest of likupang waters, North Sulawesi, Indonesia Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES) ISSN: 2220-6663 (Print) 2222-3045 (Online) Vol. 7, No. 1, p. 291-301, 2015
Sanjay Kumar Gupta and Jaswant Singh (2011) Evaluation of Mulluscs as Sensitive Indicator of Heavy Metal Pollution in Aquatic System : A review Species Issue on Environmental Management for Sustainable Development, The IIOAB Journal ISSN: 0976-3104
Susetiono. 2005. Krustacea dan Mollusca Mangrove Delta Mahakam. Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi – LIPI. Jakarta.
Suwondo, E. Febrita., F. Sumanti. 2006. Struktur Komunitas Gastropoda Pada Hutan Mangrove Di Pulau Sipora Kabupaten Kepulauan Mentawai Sumatera Barat.